Carbon Steel can be segregated into three main categories: Low carbon steel (sometimes known as mild steel); Medium carbon steel; and High carbon steel.
Low Carbon Steel (Mild Steel): Typically contain 0.04% to 0.30% carbon content. This is one of the largest groups of Carbon Steel. It covers a great diversity of shapes; from Flat Sheet to Structural Beam. Depending on the desired properties needed, other elements are added or increased. For example: Drawing Quality (DQ) – The carbon level is kept low and Aluminum is added, and for Structural Steel the carbon level is higher and the manganese content is increased.
Medium Carbon Steel: Typically has a carbon range of 0.31% to 0.60%, and a manganese content ranging from .060% to 1.65%. This product is stronger than low carbon steel, and it is more difficult to form, weld and cut. Medium carbon steels are quite often hardened and tempered using heat treatment.
High Carbon Steel: Commonly known as “carbon tool steel” it typically has a carbon range between 0.61% and 1.50%. High carbon steel is very difficult to cut, bend and weld. Once heat treated it becomes extremely hard and brittle.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical or physical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels.
The following is a range of improved properties in alloy steels (as compared to carbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, hardenability, and hot hardness. To achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat treating.
Some of these find uses in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of jet engines, in spacecraft, and in nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel alloys find important applications where their responses to magnetism are very important, including in electric motors and in transformers.
Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does. However, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments. There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required.
Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide; and, because of the greater volume of the iron oxide, this tends to flake and fall away. Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure. Passivation occurs only if the proportion of chromium is high enough and oxygen is present.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their distinctive hardness, resistance to abrasion and deformation and their ability to hold a cutting edge at elevated temperatures. As a result, tool steels are suited for their use in the shaping of other materials.
With a carbon content between 0.5% and 1.5%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the required quality. The presence of carbides in their matrix plays the dominant role in the qualities of tool steel. The four major alloying elements in tool steel that form carbides are: tungsten, chromium, vanadium and molybdenum.
Tool steels are used for cutting, pressing, extruding, and coining of metals and other materials. Their use, such as the production of injection molds, is essential, due to their resistance to abrasion, which is an important criterion for a mold that will be used to produce hundreds of thousands of moldings of a product or part.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AISI 1050
1050 is a medium carbon, medium tensile steel with good strength, toughness and wear resistance.
C1050 is a versatile medium carbon engineering steel that can be through hardened to a little over 2.5” (63mm), as well as being flame or induction hardened to Rc61. The steel can be readily welded and machined providing correct procedures are followed.
FORGING AISI 1050 CARBON STEEL
C1050 is forged from 2100 – 2300 º F (1150 – 1280 º C) down to a temperature in the range 1600 – 1700 º F ( 870 – 925 º C.). The actual forging and finishing temperatures will depend on a number of factors, including overall reduction during forging and complexity of part being forged. Experience alone will determine near exact values for these two parameters. Parts are air cooled after forging.
APPLICATIONS OF AISI 1050
This grade of steel is used for the manufacture of forged shafts and gears and for a wide range of applications that can make use of its good combination of mechanical properties.
Heat treatment is carried out on this grade to render it suitable for machining and to impart to it specified mechanical properties.
Full annealing of small C1050 forgings is carried out between 1450 and 1600 º F (790 – 870 º C) followed by furnace cooling at 50 º F (10 º C) per hour, to 1200 º F (650 º C) and air cooling.
The normalizing temperature range for this grade is typically 1550 – 1600 º F (840 – 870 º C,) Normalizing is followed by cooling in still air. When forgings are normalized before hardening and tempering or other heat treatment, the upper range of the normalizing temperature is used. When normalizing is the final treatment, the lower temperature range is used.
Hardening of this grade is carried out from an austenitizing temperature of 1500 – 1600 º F (820 – 870 º C) followed by oil or water quenching.
Flame and induction hardening may be carried out by heating quickly to the desired case depth and quenching in water or oil. This should be followed by a tempering treatment at 300 – 400 º F (150 – 200 º C) to reduce stresses in the case, without affecting its hardness. A surface hardness as high as Rc 61 may be obtained from C1050 by this treatment.
Tempering after normal hardening and oil or water quenching is carried out at 750 – 1260 º F (400 – 680 º C) to give the required mechanical properties as determined by practical experience.
Machinability of C1050 is good providing the full annealing cycle described above is used, A coarse lamellar pearlite to coarse spheroidite microstructure gives optimum machinability in C1050.
This grade is readily welded with the correct procedure. Welding in the through hardened or flame or induction hardened conditions is not recommended.
Low-hydrogen electrodes are recommended together with preheat at 300 – 800 º F (150 – 430 º C.) to be maintained during welding, Cool slowly in sand or ashes and stress relieve where possible. It may be that in certain instances normalizing may be called for after welding.
The term ‘mild steel’ is also applied commercially to carbon steels not covered by standard specifications. Carbon content of this steel may vary from quite low levels up to approximately 0.3%. Generally, commercial ‘mild steer’ can be expected to be readily weldable and have reasonable cold bending propertie.
A type of steel in which carbon is the primary alloying element, with the level of carbon contained in a steel being one of the most important factors governing its mechanical properties. Mild steel has no more than 1.65% manganese, 0.6% silicon or 0.6% copper. Mild steel is available with varying levels of formability. The more formable grades are typically more costly than the less formable grades. Also called carbon steel.
Mild steel, also known as plain-carbon steel, is now the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Low-carbon steel contains approximately 0.05–0.25% carbon making it malleable and ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and easy to form; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.
It is often used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in3) and the Young's modulus is 210 GPa (30,000,000 psi).
Low-carbon steels suffer from yield-point runout where the material has two yield points. The first yield point (or upper yield point) is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically after the upper yield point. If a low-carbon steel is only stressed to some point between the upper and lower yield point then the surface develop Lüder bands. Low-carbon steels contain less carbon than other steels and are easier to cold-form, making them easier to handle
Square Hollow Bars
Circular solid Bars
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